Here follow all the available documents on CHP as URL giving access to the contents:

pdf 19800400 CHP District Heating Estimation of a Standard Load Duration Curve AT (422 KB)

pdf 19820300 CHP A system model of CHP generation AT (14.80 MB)

pdf 19830600 CHP Cogeneration allocation of joint costs AT (642 KB)

pdf 19881000 CHP Estimating the sales potential of a new heating system An 'inverted' Lancaster approach AT (1.09 MB)

pdf 19920900 CHP A real alternative when carefully implemented AT (761 KB)

pdf 19921200 CHP The impact of CHP generation on CO2 emissions AT (502 KB)

pdf 19930400 CHP Economic evaluation of independent CHP projects AT (770 KB)

pdf 20070100 CHP Combined Heat & Power (CHP) Essentials AT (587 KB)

pdf 20070100 CHP Quantifying Combined Heat & Power activity AT (377 KB)

pdf 20070100 CHP Qualifying Combined Heat & Power activity AT (453 KB)

pdf 20070300 CHP What's Needed Next to refine the EU Directive on Cogeneration Regulation AT (509 KB)

pdf 20080800 CHP The merit of cogeneration measuring and rewarding Performance AT (396 KB)

pdf 20110508 CHP Incentive regulation of CHP performance AT (244 KB)

pdf 20131100 CHP Unveiling the mystery of Combined Heat & Power AT (1.06 MB)

pdf 20150721 CHP High quality CHP Definition, Measurement and Regulation AS (1.50 MB)

pdf 20150721 CHP High quality CHP Definition, Measurement, and Regulation AT (1.86 MB)

pdf 20160900 CHP Assessing Cogeneration Activity in Extraction Condensing Steam Turbines AT (863 KB)

pdf 20160905 CHP Practical and Accurate Measurement of Cogenerated Power AS (4.65 MB)

pdf 20170700 CHP Practical and accurate measurment of cogeneration activity AT (685 KB)


The performance of CHP activity is measured by the amount of cogenerated electricity (ECHP) during a considered period. It is the proper yardstick because it combines attributes of quality (power-to-heat ratio σ) with those of quantity (recovered heat QCHP), given that ECHP = σ × QCHP is a commonly accepted identity. In practical applications of the formula, problems arise in finding the appropriate numerical values of power-to-heat ratios. The EU Commission, expert groups, and published literature expose circular logics, concealed by flawed approximations. The enigma is most relevant for extraction-condensing steam turbines, which mix cold condensing with one or more cogeneration activities, making the power flow ECHP not directly observable. This paper presents a generic and neat solution to the ECHP measurement problem. It starts with a clear problem statement. Then, the components of the solution are exposed. First, in a Mollier diagram the unit mass flow expansion path of a Rankine steam cycle with backpressure heat extraction(s) ahead of the cold condenser is noted. Second, the characteristic points on the expansion path provide the contours of the (Electricity E – Heat Q) production possibility set of the steam power plant. Third, the real capacities of the steam flows of the power plant are mapped on the possibility set expressed in electricity and heat capacity (Watt). It shows how limits on extracted steam flows truncate a significant part of the theoretical possibility set in an extraction-condensing turbine. By merging the extraction capacities with design characteristics of a plant, the accurate measurement of cogenerated power becomes self-evident. The method is documented with numerical cases. Applying the presented, transparent and accurate, method is prerequisite for regulations being effective in promoting optimal CHP plant investments and operations. Promotional support may imply subsidies for energy efficiency, priority ranking of cogenerated power in merit orderings of integrated power systems, among others.

Download pdf:  pdf 20170700 CHP Practical and accurate measurment of cogeneration activity AT (685 KB)


© 2017 Aviel Verbruggen. All Rights Reserved.